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8th International conference on Fisheries & Aquaculture, will be organized around the theme “New Era in Fisheries & Aquaculture”
Fisheries 2017 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Fisheries 2017
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Aquaculture is also known as fish or shellfish farming which refers to the breeding, rearing, and harvesting of plants and animals in all types of water environments including ponds, rivers, lakes, and the ocean. Researchers and aquaculture producers are "farming" all kinds of freshwater and marine species of fish, shellfish, and plants. Aquaculture includes the production of ornamental fish for the aquarium trade and growing plant species used in a range of food, pharmaceutical, nutritional, and biotechnology products.
Marine, coastal and inland areas support a rich assortment of aquatic biological diversity that contributes to the economic, cultural, nutritional, social, recreational and spiritual betterment of human populations. Life originated in the world’s oceans and over the millennia has spread inland and evolved into the diverse forms used today by a variety of stakeholders, including commercial and artisanal fishers, fish farmers, developers and tourists.
Monitoring and management of aquatic animal health is important in many situations including the aquaculture industry, in ornamental species and also for wild populations of fish and shellfish. Health management is a critical issue in the aquaculture industry, as an intensive culture of animals and plants (both on land and in the water) can increase the likelihood of disease. A disease outbreak can devastate farmed populations and severely impact the short-term profitability and even long-term viability of aquaculture businesses. Those who keep ornamental fish and invertebrates for a hobby also frequently confront disease issues, and need to be scrupulous in managing the health of their animals and preventing any diseases that do occur from spreading to other aquaria or even the wild through the transfer of sick animals or contaminated water and materials. Outbreaks of the disease also occur in the wild, where they can cause unsightly and unhealthy fish kills or even endanger populations of certain native species. In all cases, a quick response is essential to enable correct diagnosis of the problem and to allow for appropriate measures to be taken, whether this be quarantine, treatment and/or euthanasia of the affected population.
Marine aquaculture refers to the culturing of species that live in the ocean. Marine aquaculture can take place in the ocean (that is, in cages, on the seafloor, or suspended in the water column) or in on-land, manmade systems such as ponds or tanks. Recirculating aquaculture systems that reduce, reuse, and recycle water and waste can support some marine species.
Aquatic toxicology is the study of the effects of manufactured chemicals and other anthropogenic and natural materials and activities on aquatic organisms at various levels of organization, from subcellular through individual organisms to communities and ecosystems. Aquatic toxicology is a multidisciplinary field which integrates toxicology, aquatic ecology and aquatic chemistry. Aquatic toxicology studies include standardization of acute and chronic toxicity test methods, sediment toxicity and dietary assessments, and contaminant sensitivity studies of at-risk species of concern including fish, amphibians and mollusks.
Aquaculture engineering is the branch of agricultural engineering that studies cultured aquatic species and the production systems used in their culture. Study, research and development in this area ranges from low intensity man-made pond systems to highly intensive recirculating aquaculture systems. Species cultured in these systems range from tilapia to salmon and can also include shellfish or seaweed. Ponds make up a large portion of aquaculture production systems, along with sea cages, and tank systems.
Ecology is the scientific study of how organisms interact with each other and with their environment. This includes relationships between individuals of the same species, between different species, and between organisms and their physical and chemical environments. Aquatic ecology includes the study of these relationships in all aquatic environments, including oceans, estuaries, lakes, ponds, wetlands, rivers, and streams. The boundaries of an aquatic ecosystem are somewhat arbitrary, but generally enclose a system in which inflows and outflows can be estimated. Ecosystem ecologists study how nutrients, energy, and water flow through an ecosystem.
Genetic analyses have much to offer fisheries managers, especially in the provision of tools enabling unequivocal specimen identification and assessment of stock structure. Biotechnology provides powerful tools for the sustainable development of aquaculture, fisheries, as well as the food industry. Increased public demand for seafood and decreasing natural marine habitats have encouraged scientists to study ways that biotechnology can increase the production of marine food products, and making aquaculture as a growing field of animal research. Biotechnology allows scientists to identify and combine traits in fish and shellfish to increase productivity and improve quality. Scientists are investigating genes that will increase production of natural fish growth factors as well as the natural defense compounds marine organisms use to fight microbial infections.
Fish are consumed as food by many species, including humans. It has been an important source of protein and other nutrients for humans throughout recorded history. Health experts have long touted the nutritional benefits of fish: These sea creatures rank high on lists of the best sources of heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acids, high-quality protein, metabolism-friendly selenium, energy-boosting Vitamin B12, and inflammation-fighting Vitamin D. Omega-3s are essential nutrients that help ward off heart disease, diabetes, and metabolism-slowing inflammation, and they’re primarily found in fish.
Like humans and other animals, fish suffer from diseases and parasites. Fish defenses against disease are specific and non-specific. Non-specific defenses include skin and scales, as well as the mucus layer secreted by the epidermis that traps microorganisms and inhibits their growth. If pathogens breach these defenses, fish can develop inflammatory responses that increase the flow of blood to infected areas and deliver white blood cells that attempt to destroy the pathogens. Specific defenses are specialized responses to particular pathogens recognized by the fish's body that are adaptive immune responses. In recent years, vaccines have become widely used in aquaculture and ornamental fish.
The primary goal of Fisheries conservation is to restore fish populations that have been eliminated because of pollution or habitat destruction. Fisheries management draws on fisheries science in order to find ways to protect fishery resources so sustainable exploitation is possible. Modern fisheries management is often referred to as a governmental system of appropriate management rules based on defined objectives and a mix of management means to implement the rules, which are put in place by a system of monitoring control and surveillance.
Fish farming is a form of aquaculture in which fish are raised in enclosures to be sold as food. It is the fastest growing area of animal food production. Today, about half the fish consumed globally are raised in these artificial environments. Commonly farmed species include salmon, tuna, cod, trout and halibut. These “aquafarms” can take the form of mesh cages submerged in natural bodies of water or concrete enclosures on land. As is the case with industrial animal farms on land, the fish are often housed in unnaturally crowded and cramped conditions with little room to move. Fish may suffer from lesions, fin damage and other debilitating injuries. The overcrowded and stressful conditions promote disease and parasite outbreaks - such as sea lice - that farmers treat with pesticides and antibiotics. The use of antibiotics can create drug-resistant strains of diseases that can harm wildlife populations and even humans that eat the farmed fish.
The deep-water demersal fishes are generally divided into two categories, benthic and bentho-pelagic. The benthic fishes are those that have a close association with the seabed and include species such as skates and flatfishes. Bentho-pelagic fishes are those that swim freely and habitually near the ocean floor and, in the areas where deep-water fisheries are commercially viable, they comprise most of the exploited biomass. The general concept of the deep sea is of a dark, cold, food scarce environment where biomass decreases exponentially with depth. How then do the continental slopes, underwater rises and seamounts in some areas of the world support deep-water fisheries? The demersal fish populations of the slopes of the Rockall Trough have been the subject of intensive study by the Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS) since the mid1970s and these studies have contributed to an explanation of this phenomenon. By using fine mesh bottom trawls capable of catching almost all sizes of fish it has been shown that there is a diverse demersal fish fauna of in excess of 130 species between about 400 metres and abyssal depths.
Fisheries are vital for the livelihoods and food resources of humans worldwide but their importance is underestimated, probably because large numbers of small, local operators are involved. Freshwater Fisheries Ecology defines what we have globally, what we are going to lose and mitigate for, and what, given the right tools, we can save. To estimate potential production, the dynamics of freshwater ecosystems (rivers, lakes and estuaries) need to be understood. These dynamics are diverse, as are the earth s freshwater fisheries resources (from boreal to tropical regions), and these influence how fisheries are both utilized and abused. Three main types of fisheries are illustrated within the book: artisanal, commercial and recreational, and the tools which have evolved for fisheries governance and management, including assessment methods, are described. Freshwater fishing is one of the types of fishing that is ideal for beginning anglers since it can be enjoyed from shore or from land using a simple tackle set up. There are freshwater lakes, reservoirs, ponds, streams and rivers where you can catch fish and enjoy a great day out on the water.
Aquaculture is currently playing, and will continue to play, a big part in boosting global fish production and in meeting rising demand for fishery products. Aquaculture is projected to be the prime source of seafood as demand grows from the global middle class and wild capture fisheries approach their maximum take. Sustainable aquaculture is a dynamic concept and the sustainability of an aquaculture system will vary with species, location, societal norms and the state of knowledge and technology.
Fish have always been important to Maine’s economy and survival. Native people, European explorers, settlers, and Mainers today have depended on marine life for food and trade. Maine fishermen catch a wide range of fish, shellfish, and other sea animals for a broad market. Today’s fishermen in the Gulf of Maine often sell their catch at the Portland Fish Exchange, where buyers purchase fish at daily auction. Fisheries today include haddock, halibut, flounder, hake, and pollock. Seasonally, fishermen also harvest clams, mussels, scallops, oysters, shrimp, alewives, herring, mackerel, and tuna. Salmon, oysters, and mussels are usually raised in aquaculture facilities along the coast. Recreational fishermen pursue striped bass, mackerel, shad, bluefish, and smelt.
The economics of aquaculture is reviewed on two levels: micro and macro. Micro-economics in aquaculture deals mainly with the management measures and elements affecting the efficiency of operation at the farm level, while macro-economics addresses the assessment of social benefits and costs of an aquaculture project. If aquaculture is socially beneficial but unattractive to private investors, public support on credit, marketing, extension, training, and research may be appropriate, especially during the early stages of development. The importance of economic analysis is emphasized since it provides a basis not only in the decision making of the individual farmer, but also in the formulation of aquaculture policies. Thus, greater attention should be focused on the improvement of economic data for analysis.
Demands for fish and shellfish as food products are increasing; however, the potential for large scale production faces numerous challenges. Policy and legislation are likely to have an impact on the development of more sustainable aquaculture practices such as integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA). In most countries a specific aquaculture policy document does not exist and aquaculture is normally included basically in the Fishery Sector Development Policy, document. It is also mentioned in other strategic policy documents; those for Industry and Environment are the two major policy documents concerned. In the absence of specific policy, aquaculture development is mainly based on development plans elaborated by the authorities in charge for the administering the sector but without formal approval. Participatory mechanisms concerned with the definition of policy mostly comprise unofficial consultations, with three exceptions. The first is in Spain where a formal Consultative Committee on Fisheries and Aquaculture has been established in Cataluña which includes representatives from the aquaculture sector. The second exception is Greece, where there is an Agricultural Policy Council (APC) operating within the Ministry of Agriculture; this is a consultative body within which representatives from the Ministry itself, scientific organisations, producers, and universities participate. The third exception is France, where there are "inter-professional committees".