Day 3 :
- Aquaculture Industry: Strategic Framework | Marketing & Pricing of Fish | Regulating Fisheries | Entrepreneurs Investment Meet
Qinzhou University, China
Cumhuriyat University, Turkey
Nanjing Agricultural University, China
Habte-Michael Habte-Tsion has completed his BSc in Marine Biology & Fisheries at University of Asmara, Eritrea. From 2002-2011, he was working at different aquaculture activities including Seawater Farms Eritrea and he was part of an advanced aquaculture programs. From 2011-2016, he studied MSc and PhD at Nanjing Agricultural University. During his MSc and PhD studies, he was engaged in research of Fish Nutrition, especially the requirements and further molecular mechanisms that prove the metabolic and immune functions of protein-essential amino acids. He has published one academic book and 24 original articles in preeminent peer-reviewed scientific journals.
Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) is a major cultured freshwater fish with great consumer demand and high production in China (e.g. about 0.70 million tons in 2012). However, few nutritional studies have been reported about this species. Indeed, this study conducted a nine week feeding trial to investigate the effects of threonine (Thr) on the growth, digestion capacity and immunity of juvenile blunt snout bream. For this purpose, juvenile fish (in triplicates) were fed with five diets containing graded Thr levels (0.58, 1.08, 1.58, 2.08 or 2.58% of the diet) to apparent satiation four times daily. At the end of the feeding trial the growth of fish and development of digestive organs, activities of digestive, absorptive and antioxidant enzymes and immune responses elevated as dietary Thr levels increased up to 1.58% (P<0.05), and thereafter decreased in most cases. The relative gene expression levels of enzymes (digestive chymotrypsin, trypsin, amylase and lipase), brush-border (AKP, Na+/K+-ATPase and γ-GT) and antioxidant (Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, CAT, GPx1 and GST), target of rapamycin (TOR) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) were up-regulated and the highest values were observed with 1.58% Thr or 1.58 and 2.08% Thr, whereas the gene expression of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4E-BP2) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were down-regulated as Thr levels increased up to 1.58% and thereafter increased (P<0.05). The dietary Thr requirement for juvenile blunt snout bream was estimated to be 1.57% of the diet, corresponding to 4.62% of dietary protein. The overall results indicate that the optimum Thr level improved growth performance, digestion and antioxidant capacity and immune status of juvenile blunt snout bream. This study could provide an insight in studies of fish nutrition and shed light on specific molecular mechanisms, which is fundamental in developing complete commercial feed for sustainable aquaculture of cultured fish.
Islamic Azad University of Sari, Iran
Farzaneh Farokhi has completed her PhD from Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. She completed her Graduation in Marine Biology in 2013. Currently, she is an Assistant Professor at Azad University of Sari, Iran. She has published more than 10 papers in reputed journals.
The present study aimed to determine the biomarkers of malathion in Rutilus rutilus caspicus by studying genotoxicity and ecophysiologic reactions. To achieve this goal, the lethal concentration (Lc50) of malathion in Rutilus rutilus caspicus was examined. The effect of different 0.1%, 0.05% and 0.01% ppm concentrations on DNA of red blood cells of this species was observed, following the sampling which was done in the 3rd, 13th and 23th days of malathion exposure and 30 days after the exposure. Although the study did not show any significant deviation regarding the number of apoptotic cells in some types of exposed specimens to malathion (P>0.05), a significant difference was observed between the control group and the treatments in all days of sampling (P<0.05). It has also been indicated that Rutilus rutilus caspicus were sensitive to malathion and the induced apoptosis was dose dependent and increased by extending the periods of exposure.
Moulay Ismail University, Morocco
Sidi Imad Cherkaoui has completed his PhD from Mohamed V University and Post-doctoral studies from Natural History Museum of Paris (France) and Faculty of Sciences of Gabes in Tunisia. He is currently an Associate Professor in Ecology and Wildlife Management at Moulay Ismail University (Meknes, Morocco) and Visiting Lecturer of International University of Casablanca. He has published more than 22 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as commission member of IUCN SSC and CMS. He has attended several conferences in more than 30 countries.
Little is known about native freshwater fish diversity in Morocco, especially after the broad national program of introduction of exotic species applied for over 90 years. This paper is an attempt to describe the current situation emphasizing the distribution of the various species, their current status using detailed threats analysis and propose conservation measures. The freshwater fish fauna of Morocco is the richest of the Maghreb region and is composed of 65 species belonging to 14 families. 36 species are indiginious, of which, 19 are endemics including six newly described Taxa. We recognise pronounced species richness and a high degree of endemism of the Moroccan ichthyofauna (52.78%). Using IUCN categories, one species is globally extinct (EX), four species are vulnerable (VU), two are endangered (EN) and two are critically endangered (CR). 27 species were introduced mainly for aquaculture and sport fishing, of which, four never became established and 23 were established. Two species were listed as invasive. As a result of climate change impact, agricultural and industrial development as well as non native species introduction, the populations of native fishes have become highly threatened in Morocco. Long-term monitoring and researches are therefore strongly needed in order to implement appropriate conservation measures.
Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Nigeria
Sogbesan Olukayode Amos has completed his PhD from University of Ibadan, Nigeria and Post-doctoral studies from Central Institute of freshwater Aquaculture, Kausalyaganga, Bhubaneswar Orissa, India. He is a Senior Lecturer and immediate past Head of Department of Fisheries, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola. He has more than 50 peer reviewed journals to his credit and he is an Editorial Board Member of reputed journals.
Utilization of moringa (M. oleifera) as soybean supplement in the diet of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was carried out for 12 weeks. Moringa leaf was purchased from market along with other feed ingredients. Moringa was processed by drying under shade for one week followed by blanching at a temperature of between 60oC-80oC for 15 minutes to minimize or deactivate the anti-nutritive. Moringa leaf was used at inclusion level of 0% (diet one-control), 10% (diet two), 20% (diet three), 30% (diet four) and 40% to replace soybean meal. Oreochromis niloticus were stocked equally in ten experimental tanks of 50 L in a semi-flow through system and each treatment was in triplicates. Weekly weights, lengths and feed intake were recorded. Fish were also subjected to proximate analysis. The results of mean weight gain shows that diet one (control) recorded the highest weight followed by diet three (20%) and diet four (30%) has the lowest mean weight gain. The fish fed diet three which contain 20% inclusion levels of PMLM has the highest FCR followed by 0%, 10% and 40% inclusion of PMLM. The fish fed with diet three (20%) has the highest SGR while the lowest is recorded in the diet five (40%) inclusion of PMLM. PER followed the same pattern. Based on the cost of feed production, diet four which contain (30%) inclusion levels of PMLM is the cheapest but the economic evaluation of the experimental diet shows diet three (20%) having highest benefit cost ratio followed by diet two (10%). Hence, the results from this study on growth performance and benefit cost ratio shows that 20% partial replacement of soybean meal is applicable and recommended for practical diet of Oreochromis niloticus in achieving a sustainable aquaculture.
University of Energy and Natural Resources, Ghana
Berchie Asiedu has completed his PhD from University of Ghana and Post-doctoral studies from University of Ibadan, Nigeria. He is a Lecturer and Researcher in Department of Fisheries & Water Resources, University of Energy and Natural Resources, Ghana. He has published more than 150 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an Editorial Board Member of repute.
Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing industries within the fisheries sector of Ghana, serving as a source of protein, food security, employment, economic growth, and poverty reduction strategy for majority of Ghanaians. Climate change due to low rainfall and high temperatures remains the most serious threat to sustainable aquaculture development in Ghana. The aim of this study was to assess the awareness level and perception as well as adaptation strategies adopted by small scale aquafarmers on climate change. Climatological data, namely, temperature, rainfall and relative humidity were collected for the period 1985-2015 from the Ghana meteorological agency and analysed to determine the trends. The study adopted stratification and simple random sampling technique in obtaining 40 respondents (aquafarmers and other stakeholders) from the sunyani aquaculture zone of Ghana through questionnaires administration. The analysis of the data utilised descriptive statistics. Findings of this study indicate that there have been significant changes in temperature and rainfall pattern. Aquafarmers have considerable knowledge on climate change from sources such as radio, television and schools. A number of adaptation strategies are employed by aquafarmers to deal with climate change, including, water management, construction of bore-holes, sitting farms close to water bodies, adjusting fish stocking time and creation of embankment to avoid floods. Extension education should be carried out to enhance aquafarmers adaptation responses to the negative impacts of climate change which is a threat to aquaculture production and sustainable livelihood.
Central Institution of Fisheries Education, India
Avinash Talukdar has completed his Master’s degree from ICAR-CIFE, Mumbai having specialization in Fish Nutrition and Feed Technology. Currently, he is pursuing his PhD in the same specialization.
The nutritional regulation of skeletal muscle growth is very little documented in fish. It requires understanding of how dietary components are processed and trigger molecular, tissue and whole body response. A feeding trial of 60 days was conducted to study the growth trajectory, body composition, enzyme activities and expression of MyoD and Myf5 genes in Clarias batrachus (Asian catfish) fingerlings fed with graded level of carbohydrate. 145 fishes were randomly distributed into four experimental groups in triplicates. Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipidic diets of 15%, 25%, 35% and 45% gelatinized carbohydrate designated as T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively were prepared. White muscle samples were collected for every 15 days interval to study the expression of MyoD and Myf5 genes. At the end of the experiment, fishes were sampled to study the growth parameters and enzyme activities. The growth parameters, such as weight gain, SGR, FCR and PER were not affected by dietary level of carbohydrate among T2, T3 and T4 treatment groups but significantly lower (P<0.05) value was found to be in T1 group. Body composition differed among the treatments. Body lipid of T4 group was found to be significantly higher (P<0.05) than the other treatments groups. Metabolic enzymes such as AST, ALT and hexokinase activity were not affected by dietary carbohydrate and found to be similar among the groups. G6PDH and amylase exhibit significantly (P<0.05) higher activity in T3 and T4 group. The partial MyoD and Myf5 gene were cloned and sequenced for the first time in Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus 1758) and their temporal expression was monitored in different intervals (15th, 30th, 45th and 60th day) in the experimental groups. Significantly higher (P<0.05) mRNA expression of MyoD and Myf5 gene was observed in T3 group (35% GC). MyoD and Myf5 genes were upregulated on 60th day and 45th day respectively, during the feeding trial. Hence, overall result indicates that 35% carbohydrate can improve growth and promote myogenesis but higher carbohydrate will favor adipogenesis in Clarias batrachus. In addition, the study also reveals that Myf5 shows more immediate response than MyoD to dietary carbohydrate. These studies demonstrate that carbohydrate can be a potent regulator of muscle development and growth and provide new opportunities in nutri-genomic studies.
Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria
Reuben Jiya Kolo has completed his PhD in 1996. He is currently the Dean of School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria. He is a member of the academic staff in Department of Water Resources, Aquaculture and Fisheries Technology of the same institution. He has supervised and graduated several PhD and Master of Technology students. He is a Consultant to Federal Government of Nigeria on Environmental Impact Assessment of proposed projects. He has published over 50 journal articles in referred journals, five book chapters and attended several international and national conferences and workshops.
The morphological characteristics and fillet yield of Clarotes laticeps and Clarias gariepinus were investigated. 30 fresh samples each of Clarotes laticeps and Clarias gariepinus collected from Wadata market, Makurdi, Benue state, Nigeria were used for this research work. All the morphological characteristics measured (total length, body weight, head length, head width, head weight, gut length, gut weight and total hard parts weight) were significantly higher (p<0.05) for Clarotes laticeps than Clarias gariepinus except the mean standard length which was higher in Clarias gariepinus (27.73+ 4.26 cm) than in Clarotes laticeps (24.81+ 0.98 cm). The percentage fillet yield was significantly higher in Clarotes laticeps (48%) than in Clarias gariepinus (46%). However, the percentage non-edible part was higher than the percentage edible part (fillet) in both Clarotes laticeps (52% and 48% respectively) and Clarias gariepinus (54% and 46% respectively). The result reveals that the bulk of the body of both Clarotes laticeps and Clarias gariepinus is made up of non-edible parts, however, the most economical for consumers would be Clarotes laticeps as it gave more fillet yield per unit weight.